I have changed the order of the patterns described, rephrased some parts, and added a few of my own thoughts.
The original podcast is available at
It is worth your time to listen to it.
Cucumber is designed to be a collaboration tool that creates a living documentation, that is possible to automate,
of the behaviour you want in a system. You describe the wanted behaviour using a language called
If you are unfamiliar
with Gherkin, it is probably a good idea to read up on it before you continue. The rest of the text assumes that you
are familiar with Gherkin and that the format
Given/When/Then isn't strange to you.
Cucumber is a collaboration tool and should be used for collaborating when driving the implementation of software.
One anti-pattern is that you write the feature files after you have written the code. This could arguable be the worst anti-pattern when using Gherkin. It is very common when you start using Cucumber and BDD.
What you really want is to write the Gherkin before you write the software. This will allow you to actually use the scenarios to drive the development and not the other way around, to document what you developed.
Why should you write the Gherkin before you write the software? Documenting the wanted behaviour is a way to make sure that everyone agrees on what the software is supposed to do. When you have reached that agreement, you have a common understanding of the problem, then it is a good time to start the implementation and write the code needed. Writing code before you have come to a common understanding is one way to make sure you implement something that you will have to change later.
Cucumber is a testing tool that allows you to test your assumptions and understanding of the problem before you actually write the code to solve the problem. It will make it clear if the people involved agree on the wanted behavior or if there is ambiguity that hasn't been discovered yet. Concrete examples before the implementation will make it clear that everyone has the same understanding.
A product owner or business analyst, a dev, and a tester will all have different perspectives on the problem. Understanding these different perspectives before writing the code increases the chance of creating something that actually is what the end user needs.
One person, maybe the product owner or business analyst, writes the scenarios alone. The result will be Gherkin that doesn't represent everybody's understanding. The scenarios written by the product owner or business analyst alone tend to be un-testable.
To be able to automate the scenarios, they will have to be changed. This leads to Gherkin that isn't the Gherkin the product owner or business analyst originally wrote and therefore it doesn't represent what they wanted. They will loose interest and the Gherkin will be something devs or testers use instead.
The common understanding is lost.
There is also a chance that when the devs start to reformulate the Gherkin, they misunderstand what the product owner or business analyst actually meant and ends up with something that is incorrect.
This is similar to the case where product owner or business analyst writes the scenarios alone. But in this case the examples tend to be unrealistic. Sometimes really dry. The examples are not talking about real users, personas, but instead talking about user1 and user2.
In this case the developers missed out on an opportunity to have realistic users, realistic data and ended up with something really boring and dry.
If a scenario is on a too high level, you can't really trust it. You can probably not tell what it actually will do because it is too high level and vague.
An example could be
Given a bank account When I withdraw some money Then the balance should be the original balance minus the amount withdrawn
This is an example that expresses a business rule. It doesn't contain any concrete example. We don't know the original balance; we don't know how much that was withdrawn so we can't know the outcome. It is not concrete.
Another example is
Given the system is turned on When it is used Then it should work perfectly
This leaves a lot of freedom to the implementer. It also trusts that the implementer has understood the requirement perfectly and will not make any mistake. It is totally useless as an example that drives the development.
This is a trap that it is easier to fall into if the the product owner or business analyst writes the scenarios alone. With more people writing scenarios, more perspectives are taken into account. Vague examples can be made concrete, unclear examples can be questioned, and unclear rules can be found.
Finding the right balance between too vague and too many details is hard. This is something experience will teach you. Getting it perfect from the beginning is not something to expect from a team. It is hard even with lots of experience.
Cucumber is a documentation tool and can be used to create a good, living, documentation about a system.
The litmus test could be: Take a scenario, show it to someone who isn't familiar with the domain and ask that person if they can describe the functionality the scenario represents. If that person can't describe what the system is supposed to do, then you have a case of bad documentation.
An example can be a long scenario, ten or more steps, and lots of incidental details that don't describe an example of a business rule but rather a journey through the application. How it should be used rather than the behavior are we trying to verify.
Someone tried to tell a good story but instead overload the reader with too much information. The incidental details are often there because the author has written a test rather than a documentation of the desired behavior.
An example could be
When I sign up as Matt, my password is password, my password confirmation is password, and I check my bank balance Then I find $100
The purpose with the scenario is to check the bank balance. In this case, it isn't relevant what your password is or how you login. It is there because the author needed the values when automating a test.
The problem with these incidental details is that they obscure the essence of the scenario. It is hard to understand what we really try to test. In this case, the reader would have to guess. Are we testing the password functionality or are we testing the bank bank balance? Or are we testing both in one scenario? All the details about passwords and bank balance makes it unclear what the purpose of the scenario is.
Are you testing one rule or are you testing several rules in the same scenario?
There are two problems here:
You may be forced to read between the lines to find out what the actual essence of the scenario is. If you are unlucky, the scenario might not have an essence. It is unfocused and aims at everything at the same time.
A good name on a scenario tell the reader what this is about. No name leaves the reader guessing.
A name that tries to summarize the entire behaviour of the scenario. Such as
Scenario: Sign up, login, go to balance screen, check balance, logout
is boring and you will loose the interest of the reader.
A good place to sum up the essence of a scenario is in its name.
A name could be
Scenario: Check balance
The name indicates that any details about something else are incidental. Any details about a password are incidental and should be removed. If a password is needed for the automation, it can be added in the automation layer.
A good naming algorithm could be to use the Friends metaphor.
This is the one where ...
Here are a few examples:
The behavior is then described in the
Given/When/Then of the scenario
The first part in a feature file is
the narrative section. You can write whatever you want here.
You can leave it blank or add useful things.
Leaving the narrative section blank or adding a user story like the one below are two ways if applying an anti-pattern.
As a user, I want to check my balance, so I know what my balance is
This user story doesn't give you any extra information and is therefore pretty useless. Someone just filled out a template without really reflecting over why someone else want this behavior.
Instead, put useful information for the reader in the beginning of the feature. Describe the business rules; the abstract rules that we will describe examples for.
An example of a rule could be:
After you have done a withdrawal, that withdrawal should show up in your
The format you describe the business rule in is not that important. Describe them using a bullet list if that's better. The examples that follows will make them concrete.
The narrative section is the place to put questions or uncertainties in as well.
Think of the feature file as living documentation where you put the rules discovered and unanswered questions, known unknowns. This is our current understanding of this feature. There is stuff we know and there is stuff we don't know yet.
There are some mistakes commonly done by beginners.
The system is used through its user interface. This sometimes leads to scenarios that talks about going to a specific url, click a specific link, find an element using a specific css selector etc. It doesn't really tell us what the purpose of using the program is. It is hard to understand why the user want to do this journey.
One problem with this is understanding the purpose. Another problem is that user interfaces changes a lot more frequently than the underlying domain logic.
UI trends change more often than the actual business. This will break your tests even if the business haven't changed. UI tests are very slow and brittle. It takes a long time to fire up a UI testing tool.
Testing through the UI will make you stuck at the top of the testing pyramid. All of your testing will be done through the user interface. This is a bad and painful place to be since it is slow and brittle.
Scenarios littered with UI details will make it impossible to test anything below the user interface.
Too many user interface details is also very poor documentation. It is hard to understand the business rule by understanding how the navigation through a system works. The navigation through a program doesn't tell us why we are using the program.
This anti-pattern usually comes from the fact that you wrote the scenarios after you actually implemented the solution.
Most systems have behavior that is used by multiple users or actors. This means that you want to talk a bout a specific user, a persona, if you can. A persona will give you context about what the system should be able to do to support a specific category of users.
If a system supports a university, there is probably a difference between a 21 year old student and a 53 year old administrator. The role, student or administrator, gives you different contexts. The age may or may not give you valuable information.
Some scenarios are very boring and perhaps just needed in the beginning of a project. An example is:
Given my bank account is empty When I check my bank balance Then it should be 0
You probably need certain scenarios in the beginning of the project or when you start developing a certain feature. Some of them will, however, be obvious after a while and covered by other tests.
Not all scenarios will bring value forever. You may delete scenarios after a while if you are certain that this case is covered in other test. But before you delete them, make sure that the behavior is covered somewhere else so you don't loose it.
Instead of deleting scenarios, you can rewrite them to document something more interesting. There are perhaps edge cases that can be covered with a rephrased scenario.
Keeping scenarios because they where written once is not a a good argument. Don't do that.
It happens that beginners have a hard time grasping the difference between
Then. The problem is that from a technical perspective, there is no difference,
treat them all equal.
What is the difference then?
Givenis the context - the past
Whenis an action that changes the system - the present
Thenis the expected outcome - the near future
A metaphor could be: Going to the theater
You are sitting in your chair and the curtain is drawn. Behind the curtain there is a lot of stage workers
Putting things in place. This is the
This is where you do the setting up of your system, creating initial objects, prepare the database,
navigating to a specific page and so on.
The curtain is drawn apart and the act starts. Things start to happen, one thing lead to another. Actors start
doing things and they say their lines.
This is the
When. This is triggering the important event that we want to happen in a specific context.
One thing on stage leads to another thing, the expected outcome. What happened in the story as a result of what an
actor did. This is the
Then. The observable change that we want to assert.
When is hopefully easier to grasp with this metaphor. The
is perhaps less
That is a
When is followed by one or many
There are cases when it can be ok. Say that two different persons does two different things in a
step, then it
can be ok.
This is an example of similar events.
When there are two completely different events, then it may be a bad idea to have an
When, expressed as an
It can be an indicator that you should split this scenario into two different scenarios.
Chances are that you describe two different behaviors in the same scenario.
There are cases that may or may not be anti-patterns. They can be used in a bad way, but they also enable you to do really good things. They are like a double edged sword and depends on the context.
Scenario outline is an example of something that easily can be overused and lead to slow tests. This is especially true if they contain a lot of UI details.
It is very easy to add a lot of scenarios when you use an outline. If the scenarios are slow, you will end up with a really slow test suit.
Using scenario outlines to verify complicated algorithms can be a valid use case. But probably not through the slow user interface.
An example can be to verify a complicated insurance algorithm where there are lots of data that will create different outcomes. In this case, it is important that you can reach the algorithm without going through the UI. This requires the system to be built so it is testable.
If the scenarios are fast, then it may be ok to use Scenario outlines. If they are slow, do not use scenario outlines.
Thenin the same scenario
This is not necessarily an anti-pattern. An example could be when something is returned in a retail system.
These are all connected. Verifying them in one go could be a good idea. At the same time, these outcomes are the result of four different business rules. Splitting them into four different scenarios will make the business rule much more explicit and will probably help you understand the system better. Splitting these will also allow the development team to implement the rules incrementally; they don't have to be implemented at the same time. This only applies to independent outcomes.
There are examples when it not possible to split a scenario. Withdrawing money from a bank account is such an example.
These outcomes are depending on each other and can't be divided into different scenarios. The bank will not appreciate if the customers gets money without the account being debited. The other way around is probably also true, most customers will not be happy if their account is debited but they didn't get any cash.
The features can be seen as a reminder of what you talked about and agreed on in the session when you wrote them. They should contain enough details for you to remember the most important details.
They should serve the same purpose as a holiday photo, remind you of a great time.
There are many mistakes you can do when you use Cucumber and implement BDD. It is not the end of the world if you do them, but it is better to avoid them. You are now equipped with some knowledge about some of the anti-patterns that are possible to do. There are probably many more mistakes you will do, but that's life. You live and learn.
If you come up with a mistake you have done and want to share it, use the comment section below. Or send an e-mail to the Cucumber mailing list.